Oklahoma – Accountability

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The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.

SREB developed this profile based on analysis of the plan Oklahoma submitted to the US ED on June 8, 2018. SREB will update the profile when Oklahoma finalizes its plan.

State Highlights: Expectations for College and Career Readiness

States are not required to include college- and career-readiness expectations in their accountability systems under ESSA. Many SREB states, however, did set college- and career-readiness expectations in their plans, in the form of long-term goals and school performance indicators. Oklahoma included the following two college- and career-readiness expectations in its plan.

  1. Long-term goals. ESSA requires that states establish long-term goals based on academic achievement, high school graduation rate and English language proficiency for English learners. In addition to setting goals in these areas, Oklahoma also established two college- and career-readiness goals:
    • By 2025, 100 percent of students in grades six through 12 will develop an Individual Career Academic Plan.
    • By 2025, the state’s postsecondary remediation rate in math and English language arts will decline by 50 percent.
  2. School performance indicators.
    • Academic achievement. ESSA requires states to specify indicators for the performance of all schools that include academic achievement as measured by proficiency on annual state assessments of English language arts and math in grades three through eight and once in high school. Oklahoma’s indicator of academic achievement for high schools includes assessments in English language arts and math, and allows districts to use either the ACT or SAT exam – both considered college entrance exams – as the instrument. Oklahoma also includes a college and career readiness science assessment.
    • School quality or student success. ESSA requires states to set an indicator for school quality or student success, which can but does not have to include such measures as school climate and safety, student engagement and college readiness. Oklahoma’s indicator awards high schools points based on student accomplishment in any of the following postsecondary opportunities.
      • Completion of AP, IB or dual enrollment coursework
      • Completion of work-based internship or apprenticeship
      • Completion of industry certification program

Read about these expectations below in the profile.

Long-Term Goals

The Every Student Succeeds Act requires that states establish long-term goals for all students and student groups based on academic achievement, high school graduation rate and English language proficiency for English learners.

Oklahoma established the following long-term goals.

Academic achievement

  • By 2025, the state will rank in the top 20 states on the National Assessment of Educational Progress in reading, math and science in grades four and eight.
  • By 2030, the majority of all students will achieve scale scores on state English language arts, math and science assessments that indicate proficiency and being on-track for college and career readiness.  

Graduation rate

  • By 2025, the state will rank in the top 10 states for four-, five- and six-year high school graduation rates. Accordingly, by 2025, 90 percent of all students – and each student subgroup – will graduate from high school in four years.

English language proficiency

  • Between 2016-17 and 2024-25, the percentage of English learners meeting annual growth targets on the state English language proficiency test will increase by 2 percent each year, to 66 percent.

College and career readiness

  • By 2025, the state’s postsecondary remediation rate in math and English language arts will decline by 50 percent.
  • By 2025, 100 percent of students in grades six through 12 will develop an Individual Career Academic Plan.

School Performance Indicators

The Every Student Succeeds Act specifies a set of indicators states must use to assess school performance. Indicators for all schools must include academic achievement as measured by proficiency on annual state assessments of English language arts and math in grades three through eight and once in high school. States must require 95 percent of students to participate in these assessments and factor this requirement into the school accountability system. States must also include two more indicators for all schools – English language proficiency for English learners and an indicator of school quality or student success, such as school climate and safety, student engagement and college readiness. For elementary and middle grades schools, states must include an additional academic indicator of their choice, such as student growth on state assessments. For high schools, states must also include an indicator of four-year cohort graduation rate.

Oklahoma established the following indicators of school performance.

Level Indicators

All schools

Academic achievement: Schools must meet the 95 percent participation rate for all students and subgroups

English language proficiency: Progress towards English proficiency on state assessment – WIDA ACCESS for ELLs 2.0

School quality or student success: Attendance – chronic absenteeism

Elementary and middle grades

Academic achievement: Performance on state English language arts and math assessments – Oklahoma School Testing Program, or OSTP – and on state science assessments

Other academic indicator: Student growth on state English language arts and math assessments – OSTP

High schools

Academic achievement: Performance on state college- and career-readiness assessments in English language arts and math – ACT or SAT, according to district choice – and performance on state college- and career-readiness science assessment

Graduation rate

  • Four-year adjusted cohort graduation rate
  • School improvement score – difference between the five- and six-year graduation rates and the four-year graduation rate

School quality or student success: Student accomplishment in any of the following postsecondary opportunities.

  • Completion of AP, IB or dual enrollment coursework
  • Completion of work-based internship or apprenticeship
  • Completion of industry certification program

Annual Meaningful Differentiation

The Every Student Succeeds Act requires that states use their performance indicators to differentiate the performance of all schools and to report performance for all students and all student subgroups. States have flexibility in assigning weight to their indicators, so long as their indicators of academic achievement, graduation rate and English language proficiency progress together receive much greater weight than their school quality or student success indicators.

Oklahoma established the following framework for differentiating schools, weights for each indicator, and student subgroups.

Framework for differentiating schools in Oklahoma

On an annual basis, schools will receive an A through F letter grade for each indicator, and one overall A through F letter grade, based on the sum of the combined indicators on a 0- to 90-point scale.

Weights assigned to each indicator in Oklahoma

Instead of assigning weighted percentages to each indicator, Oklahoma assigns the following possible points to each indicator.

Weights assigned to each indicator in Oklahoma - Elementary and Middle Schools (35 Academic Achievement / 30 Other Academic Indicator / 15 English Language Proficiency Progress / 10 School Quality or Student Success) and High Schools (45 Academic Achievement / 20 School Quality or Student Success / 15 English Language Proficiency Progress / 10 Graduation Rate)

Student subgroups in Oklahoma

  • Subgroups:
    • For overall state accountability, Oklahoma will focus on nine student subgroups: economically disadvantaged students, students with disabilities, English learners, Native American/American Indian students, Asian/Pacific islander students, black/African American students, Hispanic or Latino students, students identifying as of two or more races, and white students.
    • For the academic achievement indicator only, Oklahoma will use the same student subgroups as for overall state accountability. However, each student will be assigned to only one subgroup, based on strength of correlation with academic achievement. With this approach, Oklahoma seeks to focus on historically low-performing subgroups while avoiding counting a student’s performance in multiple subgroups.
    • Oklahoma will also report data on six additional subgroups: migrant students, male students, female students, homeless students, students in foster care and military-affiliated students.
  • Size of subgroups: In instances in which schools do not meet the threshold of 10 students (n-count) for any of the subgroups for an indicator, Oklahoma will aggregate up to three years of data. In instances in which schools do not meet an n-count of 10 students for any subgroup for an indicator, Oklahoma will not report the performance of that subgroup separately. 
  • Use of subgroup data in school ratings: Oklahoma uses subgroup performance data to identify schools for targeted support and improvement (TSI) and additional targeted support and improvement (see below) and publicly reports subgroup performance data for each indicator, as required by ESSA. Additionally, Oklahoma factors subgroup performance into overall school ratings, by including performance in relation to state interim targets for students in each subgroup in the calculation of its academic achievement indicator (see above). Also, schools that are identified as TSI due to subgroup performance will receive a lower overall letter grade, and schools with an overall “A” letter grade and no large achievement gaps will be identified as “Reward Schools”.

Identifying, Serving and Exiting Schools from Needs Improvement Status

ESSA requires that states establish a methodology for identifying low-performing schools. States must identify two categories of schools at least once every three years: those that need Comprehensive Support and Improvement (CSI) and those that need Targeted Support and Improvement (TSI). States may also establish other categories of schools, for example those not in need of improvement.

Oklahoma established the following identification and exit criteria, and interventions to support schools.

Comprehensive Support and Improvement

How schools are identified

    Identified every three years beginning in 2018-19, any school that meets any of these criteria: 

    • CSI schools
      • Schools with an overall “F” letter grade
      • Schools in the bottom 5 percent statewide, based on overall accountability score, for high schools and separately for elementary and middle grades schools
    • CSI high schools: Schools with less than a 67 percent four-year adjusted cohort graduation rate
    • TSI schools: Schools that do not exit TSI status after three years

    Interventions to meet improvement needs

    For schools failing to exit CSI status within three years, the state will help local education agencies and their schools by providing:

    • Formula and competitive grant funding
    • School support specialist and CSI team, represented by staff from across the state education agency
    • Oklahoma Nine Essential Elements needs-assessment tool
    • Consistent communication, and at least one site visit each semester, with additional visits as needed
    • Support selecting from state-approved, evidence-based interventions, such as professional learning for current principals and for new or aspiring school leaders, networked improvement communities, five-day school weeks, supplemental child nutrition programs and effective school librarians
    • Technical assistance with planning, budgeting and implementing interventions
    • Technical assistance with monitoring plans through data collection, reviewing and revising plans

    After three years, for CSI schools failing to exit CSI status, the state will increase the amount and rigor of support and may require schools to adopt specific state-selected interventions.

    Criteria for exiting this category

      After one year, schools can exit CSI status by:

      • Improving student achievement so that they are no longer meeting the CSI identification criteria 
      Targeted Support and Improvement

      How schools are identified

        Identified annually beginning in 2019-20, any schools that meet any of these criteria:

        • TSI schools: Schools with a “consistently underperforming” student subgroup that has performed in the bottom 5 percent statewide on two or more indicators in the accountability system, with performance averaged across the three most recent years. Schools may not receive an overall “A” letter grade if they are identified as TSI.
        • Additional TSI schools: Schools with at least one student subgroup whose overall performance on all indicators is equal to or lower than the fifth percentile of all students.

        Interventions to meet improvement needs

          State will help local education agencies and their schools by providing:

          • Multi-tiered system of support, with interventions based on student subgroup performance data, state capacity to serve the number of TSI schools statewide and available funding

          Criteria for exiting this category

            After one year, schools can exit TSI and additional TSI status by completing the following milestone.

            • Demonstrating substantial improvement by underperforming student subgroups that results in the subgroup no longer being in the bottom 5 percent statewide
            Other categories of schools

            Reward schools

              Identified annually beginning in 2018-19, any schools meeting the following criteria.

              • Overall “A” letter grade
              • No large achievement gaps and an assessment participation rate above 95 percent
              • Overall graduation rate of at least 85 percent with no student subgroup falling below 75 percent

              The state will provide a special recognition of excellence to reward schools. There are no interventions or Title I funds provided to these schools.

              This profile was prepared by Kim Anderson, SREB’s director of benchmarking college- and career-readiness standards, Mary Elizabeth Mira, SREB’s assistant director of benchmarking college- and career-readiness standards, Tiffany Harrison, SREB’s research associate for benchmarking college- and career-readiness standards and Jeff Gagné, SREB’s director of policy analysis. For more information, please contact Kim Anderson at kim.anderson@sreb.org or Jeff Gagné at jeff.gagne@sreb.org.