Bandwidth Bibliography


Bandwidth Bibliography

Newly Added Resources

2015 Broadband Progress Report

Broadband deployment in the United States – especially in rural areas – is failing to keep pace with today’s advanced, high-quality voice, data, graphics and video offerings, according to the 2015 Broadband Progress Report adopted today by the Federal Communications Commission.

Reflecting advances in technology, market offerings by broadband providers and consumer demand, the FCC updated its broadband benchmark speeds to 25 megabits per second (Mbps) for downloads and 3 Mbps for uploads. The 4 Mbps/1 Mbps standard set in 2010 is dated and inadequate for evaluating whether advanced broadband is being deployed to all Americans in a timely way, the FCC found.

Using this updated service benchmark, the 2015 report finds that 55 million Americans – 17 percent of the population – lack access to advanced broadband. Moreover, a significant digital divide remains between urban and rural America: Over half of all rural Americans lack access to 25 Mbps/3 Mbps service.

BroadbandUSA: Connecting America’s Communities

Earlier description (2013 edition) below is current and it is the primary address.

Is your school’s Internet access fast enough for digital learning?
School Speed Test

Join thousands of colleagues across the nation to find out by taking the school speed test. In less than a minute you’ll know the speed of your school’s Internet access and the types of digital learning it can support.

Public schools lack of bandwidth needs attention
Carolyn Fox, Open Source, March 2014

The Software & Information Industry Association (SIIA) estimates the US market for pre-K to 12th grade educational software and digital content to be over $7.96 billion USD. Testing and assessment comprise the largest category and a 35% growth rate from last year.

Despite the money spent last year on educational software and digital content, most public schools are grappling to bridge the digital gap and struggling with bandwidth coverage. As the board of the Los Angeles Unified School District (the second largest school system in the country) considers buying 67,500 more iPads, only 208 out of 800 schools have the bandwidth to support its 1:1 iPad plan; that leaves 533 schools without the necessary bandwidth to be ready for online tests that will accompany national academic standards (the Common Core).

School districts across the country are scrambling. Read more…… Open tools like Nagios, Cacti, and Zabbix can help schools monitor networks, cut costs, and reduce the bandwidth bottleneck too.

“Internet Infrastructure for America’s K-12 Students”

EducationSuperHighway is a nonprofit organization with the mission of ensuring that every K-12 school in America has reliable, high-capacity (100Mpbs) Internet access so they can take advantage of the promise of digital learning. It is a team of former business executives, tech engineers, educators and philanthropists who are passionate about using skills, energy and resources to help improve America’s public schools. Read their four-point plan for upgrading America’s K-12 schools to 100Mbps in seven years.

When Students Can’t Go Online
Terrance Ross, Atlantic Magazine, March 13, 2015

Nearly every school in America has some form of Internet connectivity—but that alone doesn’t mean all kids have equal access to the web.

Tim Berners-Lee, the British scientist credited with the creation of the Internet, insists that access to the World Wide Web should be recognized as a basic human right. Using that logic, if education is, as the UN states, “a passport to human development,” then Internet access is a right that should be extended to all schools. In America, that goal has largely been achieved.

Currently 99 percent of America’s K-12 public schools and libraries are somehow connected to the web, in large part thanks to the Federal Communications Commission’s congressionally mandated “E-Rate” program, which went into effect in 1998.

Read more to discover the current situation: According to the Obama administration, a typical school has about the same connection speed as the average American home but serves about 200 times as many users. Some schools even have to ration Internet time to students… How can this be changed?


Bandwidth Bibliography

Federal Government

“ConnectED: President Obama’s Plan for Connecting All Schools to the Digital Age”
The White House, Fact Sheet, June 6, 2013

President Obama has called on the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to take the steps necessary to build high-speed digital connections to America’s schools and libraries, ensuring that 99 percent of American students can benefit from these advances in teaching and learning. He is further directing the federal government to make better use of existing funds to get this technology into classrooms, and into the hands of teachers trained on its advantages. President Obama is calling on businesses, states, districts, schools and communities to support this vision.

National Broadband Plan: Connecting America — Broadband & Education
Federal Communication Commission, March 2010

On its website, the FCC asserts that broadband investment will help us lead the world in 21st century educational innovation. Here’s what the FCC is doing:
Learning-On-the-Go: The FCC is launching a pilot program that supports off-campus wireless Internet connectivity
   for mobile learning devices.
Super-fast Fiber: The FCC’s new E-rate Order will help bring affordable, super-fast fiber connections to America’s
   schools and libraries.
School Spots: The FCC is also launching “School Spots” where schools have the option to provide Internet access
   to the local community after students go home.

2010 E-Rate Program and Broadband Usage Survey: Report

This report presents data from the 2010 E-rate Program and Broadband Usage Survey commissioned by the FCC and conducted by Harris Interactive Inc. (Harris), an independent national marketing research firm, from February to April 2010. The primary goal of the survey was to collect data on the current state of broadband connectivity for E-rate-funded schools and libraries and to inquire into challenges related to broadband use that recipients face now or will face in the future.

FCC Broadband Availability Map

The National Broadband Map (NBM) is a searchable and interactive website that allows users to view broadband availability across every neighborhood in the United States. The NBM was created by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), in collaboration with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and in partnership with 50 states, five territories and the District of Columbia. The NBM is part of NTIA’s State Broadband Initiative. The NBM is updated approximately every six months and was first published on February 17, 2011.

Another version of the map is available at:

“FCC Launches Update of E-Rate for Broadband in Schools and Libraries”
Federal Communication Commission News Release, July 19, 2013

Links are provided to related FCC documents that explain the procedure that will take place related to Broadband and Connecting America.

“Winning the Global Bandwidth Race: Opportunities and Challenges for Mobile Broadband”
Remarks by Julius Genachowski, FCC Chairman, October 4, 2012

This is a speech presented at Wharton College about the status of mobile technology and related bandwidth. The nation has regained global leadership in mobile. The task is to make sure that our innovators and the American public have the infrastructure they need to preserve and extend U.S. leadership in the global broadband economy.

BroadbandUSA: Connecting America’s Communities
National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act provided the Department of Commerce’s National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Rural Utilities Service (RUS) with $7.2 billion to expand access to broadband services in the United States. This site gives details on these investments. The Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) has been an integral part of this program.

“The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: Saving and Creating Jobs and Reforming Education”
U. S. Department of Education, March 7, 2009

As described on, part of the 2009 stimulus package, The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provides approximately $100 billion for education, including bandwidth — $7.2 billion for complete broadband and wireless Internet access. While a cursory look does not mention bandwidth or broadband, this part of, The Recovery Act: Success Stories in the States (Democratic Policy Committee, Senate), provides details of the stimulus in all states. Also, updates to ARRA do not mention the topics.


State Government

Connected Texas

Connected Texas is an independent, public and private initiative working to ensure that all can experience the benefits of broadband. Technology, especially widespread access, use and adoption of broadband, improves all areas of life. Connected Texas seeks to change communities and lives across Texas.
Connected Texas is a subsidiary of Connected Nation and operates as a non-profit in the state of Texas. It was commissioned by the Texas Department of Agriculture to work with all broadband providers in Texas to create detailed maps of broadband coverage in order to accurately pinpoint remaining gaps in broadband availability in the state. Connected Texas will continue to develop and update the broadband data as they are collected and the services that can be made available to public and private entities as well as citizens.

The Broadband Imperative: Recommendations to Address K-12 Infrastructure Needs
Christine Fox, John Waters, Geoff Fletcher and Douglas Levin, State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA)

Given current trends and the real-world experiences of states and leading districts, SETDA offers four recommendations for policy-makers and school leaders committed to charting a course for the future of K-12 education enabled by broadband.
-  Move to address K-12 broadband infrastructure needs.
-  Ensure broadband access for students and educators.
-  Build state leadership.
-  Advocate for federal funding.
This comprehensive paper focuses on how to achieve these four goals.

“OneNet Cloud Services Offer Options for a Variety of IT Needs”
April Goode, OneNet: Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, August 9, 2013

OneNet is Oklahoma’s telecommunications and information network for education and government, utilizing fiber optics and wireless technologies to transmit video, voice and data throughout Oklahoma, the nation and the world. OneNet is not a state-owned utility, but rather a state lead partnership among telecommunications companies, equipment manufacturers and service providers. It provides high-speed communications to a variety of Oklahoma entities such as: public and vocational-technical schools; colleges and universities; public libraries; local, tribal, state and federal governments; court systems; rural health care delivery systems; and programs engaged in research.


Non-governmental Organizations

Connected Nation

Connected Nation believes that states, communities, families, and individuals can realize great economic and social advantages when they accelerate broadband availability in underserved areas and increase broadband use in all areas, rural and urban, alike. Connected Nation has been committed to provide extensive broadband planning services for communities and states for more than ten years. These services ranging from comprehensive broadband mapping to public policy language. Connected Nation has a number of services to serve communities and its citizens.

“Internet Infrastructure for America’s K-12 Students”

EducationSuperHighway is a nonprofit organization with the mission of ensuring that every K-12 school in America has reliable, high-capacity (100Mpbs) Internet access so they can take advantage of the promise of digital learning. It is a team of former business executives, tech engineers, educators and philanthropists who are passionate about using skills, energy and resources to help improve America’s public schools. Read their four-point plan for upgrading America’s K-12 schools to 100Mbps in seven years.

EducationSuperHighway administers the National School Speed Test. Is your school’s Internet access fast enough for digital learning? Find out by taking the school speed test while on your school’s network. In less than a minute, you will know the speed of your school’s Internet access and the types of digital learning it can support.


The Quilt is the national coalition of advanced regional networks for research and education, representing 31 networks across the country. Participants provide advanced network services and applications to over 200 universities and thousands of other educational institutions. The goals are: to promote consistent, reliable, interoperable and efficient advanced networking services that extend to the broadest possible community; and to represent common interests in the development and delivery of advanced network services. The Quilt aims to influence the national agenda on information technology infrastructure, with particular emphasis on networking for research and education.

TechNet’s 2012 State Broadband Index
John B. Horrigan and Ellen Satterwhite, Technet, 2012

In this report, the TechNet State Broadband Index rates the 50 states on indicators of broadband adoption, network quality and economic structure as a way of taking stock of where states stand.

“Broadband and Internet Policy”, 2013

Broadband is the foundation for continued technological and economic leadership, and it is critical that the U.S. show leadership in clearing roadblocks to broadband deployment and adopting innovative policies to foster demand. TechNet continues to work with the administration and Congress to ensure broadband and Internet policies remain a priority for our nation. This Web page outline six points related to achieving desired goal.


Relevant News Articles

“Top-Ten IT Issues, 2013: Welcome to the Connected Age”
Susan Grajek, EDUCAUSE Review Online, June 3, 2013

See Issue #1: Leveraging the Wireless and Device Explosion on Campus.
Will the institution have adequate wireless access and Internet bandwidth to address wireless device density? Is ubiquitous network access a baseline or a highly desirable requirement? IT organizations have had to address network coverage, but the pure density of devices on campus and their bandwidth requirements cause new challenges.

“Education Advocates Hail FCC’s Plans To Modernize E-Rate”
Leila Meyer, T.H.E. Journal, July 22, 2013

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has announced plans to review and modernize the E-rate program with the goal of increasing broadband capacity, maximizing cost-effective purchasing and streamlining program administration.

“FCC Begins Writing Rules to Bring Ultrafast Broadband to Most Schools in Five Years”
Paul Barbagallo, Bloomberg BNA, July 22, 2013

Schools and libraries could soon be connected to faster and higher-capacity broadband service through the federal E-Rate program under new rules that the Federal Communications Commission officially began preparing July 19. The author provides a concise explanation of how this will be unfolding.

“Forget MOOCs — Your Biggest Problem is Bandwidth!
Dian Schaffhauser, Campus Technology digital magazine, June 6, 2013

New applications, devices and modes of learning are responsible for an ever-escalating bandwidth demand that colleges and universities can’t afford to ignore. The article quotes Jorge Mata of Los Angeles, who likens bandwidth to clogged LA freeways: It’s not just knowing how many lanes there are on the route you’re taking. “You’ve got to think about how quickly you can get data from one place to another.”