Accountability

Overview

Accountability

Why Focus on State Accountability Systems?

Accountability systems are an important part of state efforts to increase student achievement. States use accountability systems to articulate their goals and priorities for public education, report publicly on school performance, and shape their work with districts, schools and educators. Schools and districts use accountability systems to identify their strengths and challenges and focus their continuous improvement efforts.

In 2015, the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) replaced the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 as the latest reauthorized version of the federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

ESSA maintains some of the basic requirements for state accountability systems under NCLB. For example, states must still

  • establish student learning standards in English language arts (ELA), math, science and English language proficiency for English learners;
  • assess students annually in ELA and math in grades three through eight and once in high school, and in science once in grades three through five, six through nine, and 10 through 12; and
  • report school performance ratings annually.

ESSA gives states flexibility in shaping many aspects of their systems. For example, states largely establish their own

  • long-term goals and timeframes for meeting their goals;
  • indicators of school performance and annual targets for schools; 
  • values for school performance indicators within the framework for determining school performance ratings;
  • criteria for identifying schools in need of support and systems for supporting those schools; and
  • system for reporting publicly on school performance.

The state profiles distill information about key components of state accountability systems in all SREB Region states.

State policymakers and state education agencies, district and school leaders, and other stakeholders can use these reports to understand state accountability systems, and inform efforts to continually improve policy, practice and outcomes for students.

Access each state’s profile by clicking on the map above. These reports reflect information SREB staff gathered as of June 7, 2018. 

Overview of State Profiles and Research Methods

State Profiles

Each state profile summarizes four key components of the state accountability system under the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). 

  1. Long-term goals: What long-term goals did the state set for improving schools?
  2. School performance indicators: What indicators of school performance does the state use?  
  3. Annual meaningful differentiation: How does the state differentiate school performance? Additionally, how does the state assign value to school performance indicators in determining school ratings, and report student subgroup performance?
  4. Support for schools: What categories of schools does the state identify? Additionally, when does the state begin identifying schools in need of improvement, what criteria does the state use to identify the schools, what support does it provide them and how does it determine when they no longer need support?   

Additionally, at the top of each state’s profile, SREB highlights the state’s goals and indicators for college and career readiness.

Research Methods

SREB benchmarking readiness project staff reviewed the plans states submitted in 2017 to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) for approval.

SREB staff developed a profile for all 16 SREB Region states: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia.

SREB staff used structured protocols to gather consistent information from all states. To ensure the accuracy of the information in the profiles, SREB staff consulted representatives in the state education agencies. Fourteen state education agencies sent feedback. 

The state profiles distill information about key components of state accountability systems in SREB Region states. 

State policymakers and state education agencies, district and school leaders, and other stakeholders can use these reports to understand state accountability systems and inform efforts to continually improve policy, practice and outcomes for students.

Access each state’s profile by clicking on the map above. These reports reflect information SREB staff gathered as of June 7, 2018. 

Introduction to Regional Trends: Goals

As required by the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), all SREB states set goals for academic achievement in English language arts (ELA) and math, high school graduation rates and English language proficiency for English learners.

Five SREB states went beyond the requirements of ESSA and established one or more goals for student college and career readiness. See Table 1.

Table 1 State goals for college and career readiness

State Goals for College and Career Readiness

AL

  • By 2030, 94 percent of high school graduates will be identified as college and career ready, by earning at least one college- or career-readiness indicator.

OK

  • By 2025, the state’s postsecondary remediation rate in math and English language arts will decline by 50 percent.
  • By 2025, 100 percent of students in grades six through 12 will develop an individual career academic plan.

SC

  • By 2035, 90 percent of students will graduate college, career, and citizenship ready, as outlined by South Carolina.
  • Beginning with the 2020 graduating class, the state, each district, and each high school should increase by five percent annually the percentage of students who graduate ready to enter post-secondary education for a degree or national industry credential – without needing remediation in math or English.

TN

  • By 2020, the state’s average ACT composite score will be 21.
  • By 2020, most high school graduates will earn a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

TX

  • By 2030, 60 percent of Texans aged 25 to 34 will possess a postsecondary credential.
  • By 2032, 60 percent of students – and each student group – will be at grade level on the state’s English language arts and math assessments, indicating likely success in a postsecondary setting.

 

Read more about these and other state goals in the state profiles. Access state profiles by clicking on the map above. These reports reflect information SREB staff gathered as of June 7, 2018.

Introduction to Regional Trends: Indicators of School Performance

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) requires states to establish the following five types of indicators of school performance.

For all schools

  1. Academic achievement as measured by proficiency on state assessments of English language arts (ELA) and math
  2. English language proficiency for English learners
  3. School quality or student success. States can design the indicator to reflect the state’s unique local context and areas of focus. The indicator can focus on things such as school climate and safety, student engagement, and college and career readiness.

For elementary and middle grades schools − also

  1. Other academic indicator. States must establish a measure of their choice to track student achievement beyond proficiency in ELA and math − for example student growth. 

For high schools − also

  1. Graduation rate. States must base this indicator on the four-year adjusted cohort rate. States may also measure extended-year adjusted cohort rates.

Read about each state’s indicators in the profiles. Access the profiles by clicking on the desired state in the map above. These reports reflect information SREB staff gathered as of June 7, 2018.

Introduction to Regional Trends: Differentiating School Performance

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) requires that states use their performance indicators to differentiate the performance of all schools and to report performance for all students and all student subgroups. How states value their school performance indicators within the system for determining school ratings signals the relative importance of each indicator. 

States have flexibility in assigning the relative value, or weight, to their indicators so long as their indicators of academic achievement, graduation rate and English language proficiency progress together receive much greater weight than their school quality or student success indicators. 

Read more in each state’s profile about the state’s framework for differentiating and reporting on school performance, the values of school performance indicators, and how the state uses student subgroup data in its ratings and reporting. Access the profiles by clicking on the desired state in the map above. These reports reflect information SREB staff gathered as of June 7, 2018.

Introduction to Regional Trends: Supporting Schools

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) requires that states establish a methodology for identifying and serving low-performing schools. States must identify two categories of schools at least once every three years: those that need Comprehensive Support and Improvement (CSI) and those that need Targeted Support and Improvement (TSI). 

States must identify as CSI at least the lowest-performing 5 percent of Title I schools and any high school failing to graduate one-third or more of its students. States may establish additional criteria to identify CSI schools.

States must identify as TSI schools with consistently underperforming subgroups. States establish their own definition of “consistently underperforming.” States must also identify additional TSI schools, those with one or more “low-performing” subgroups performing at the level of all students in the bottom five percent of Title I schools statewide.

States may also establish additional categories of schools, for example, those not in need of improvement.

States must notify local education agencies (LEA) of identified CSI and TSI schools. LEAs take the lead in supporting the schools. States provide LEAs with technical assistance and support. ESSA gives states flexibility, within a few parameters, to determine the kinds and extent of assistance and support they provide to LEAs and schools.  

Read in each state’s profile about the state’s criteria for identifying schools as CSI and TSI, criteria for exiting schools from CSI and TSI status, and the assistance and support the state provides to LEAs and schools. Access the profiles by clicking on the desired state in the map above. These reports reflect information SREB staff gathered as of June 7, 2018. 

Moving Forward: Recommendations for Using State Accountability Systems as Effective Drivers of Continuous Improvement

Stay tuned! In summer 2018 SREB will publish a regional report that will provide detailed analysis of trends in how states focus on college and career readiness in their new state accountability systems, and recommendations for making the systems effective tools for communication and continuous improvement.​

Post
Weights assigned to each indicator in West Virginia - Elementary and Middle Grades (29% School Quality or Student Success / 28% Academic Achievement / 28% Other Academic Indicator / 14% English Language Proficiency Progress) and High Schools (37.5% School Quality or Student Success / 25% Academic Achievement / 25% Graduation Rate / 12.5% English Language Proficiency Progress)

West Virginia – Accountability

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.

Post

Virginia – Accountability

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.

Post
Weights assigned to each indicator in Texas - Elementary and Middle Grades (40% Academic Achievement / 40% Other Academic Indicator / 10% School Quality or Student Success / 10% English Language Proficiency Progress) and High Schools (50% Academic Achievement / 30% School Quality or Student Success / 10% Graduation Rate / 10% English Language Proficiency Progress)

Texas – Accountability

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.

Post
Weights assigned to each indicator in Tennessee - Elementary and Middle Grades (45% Academic Achievement / 35% Other Academic Indicator / 10% School Quality or Student Success / 10% English Language Proficiency Progress) and High Schools (30% Academic Achievement (English Language Arts, Math and Science) / 30% School Quality or Student Success / 25% Academic Achievement (Student Growth) / 10% English Language Proficiency Progress / 5% Graduation Rate)

Tennessee – Accountability

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.

Post
Weights assigned to each indicator in South Carolina - Elementary and Middle Grades (35% Academic Achievement / 35% Other Academic Indicator / 20% School Quality or Student Success / 10% English Language Proficiency Progress) and High Schools (40% School Quality or Student Success / 25% Academic Achievement / 25% Graduation Rate / 10% English Language Proficiency Progress)

South Carolina – Accountability

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.

Post
Weights assigned to each indicator in Oklahoma - Elementary and Middle Schools (35 Academic Achievement / 30 Other Academic Indicator / 15 English Language Proficiency Progress / 10 School Quality or Student Success) and High Schools (45 Academic Achievement / 20 School Quality or Student Success / 15 English Language Proficiency Progress / 10 Graduation Rate)

Oklahoma – Accountability

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.

Post
Weights assigned to each indicator in North Carolina - Elementary and Middle Grades (80% Academic Achievement, Other Academic Indicator and English Language Proficiency Progress / 20% School Quality or Student Success) and High Schools (80% Academic Achievement (English Language Arts and Math), English Language Proficiency Progress, Graduation Rate, and School Quality or Student Success / 20% Academic Achievement (Student Growth))

North Carolina – Accountability

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.

Post
Weights assigned to each indicator in Mississippi - Elementary and Middle Grades (300 Other Academic Indicator / 190 Academic Achievement / 95 School Quality or Student Success / 35 English Language Proficiency) and High Schools (380 Academic Achievement (Student Growth) / 190 Academic Achievement (English Language Arts and Math) / 190 School Quality or Student Success / 190 Graduation Rate / 50 English Language Proficiency)

Mississippi – Accountability

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.

Post
Weights assigned to each indicator in Maryland - Elementary and Middle Grades (35% Other Academic Indicator / 35% School Quality or Student Success / 20% Academic Achievement / 10% English Language Proficiency Progress) and High Schools (35% School Quality or Student Success / 30% Academic Achievement / 15% Graduation Rate / 10% Readiness for Postsecondary Success  / 10% English Language Proficiency Progress)

Maryland – Accountability

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.

Post
Weights assigned to each indicator in Louisiana - Elementary Schools (50% Academic Achievement and English Language Proficiency Progress / 25% Other Academic Indicator / 25% School Quality or Student Success), Middle Grades (46.67% Academic Achievement and English Language Proficiency Progress / 28.33% School Quality or Student Success / 25% Other Academic Indicator) and High Schools (41.67% Graduation Rate / 37.5% School Quality or Student Success / 20.83% Academic Achievement and English Language Proficiency Progress)

Louisiana – Accountability

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.

Post
Weights assigned to each indicator in Kentucky - Elementary and Middle Grades (62 School Quality or Student Success / 48 Other Academic Indicator and English Language Proficiency Progress / 25 Academic Achievement) and High Schools (95 School Quality or Student Success and English Language Proficiency Progress / 40 Academic Achievement / 15 Gradation Rate)

Kentucky – Accountability

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.

Post
Weights assigned to each indicator in Georgia - Elementary and Middle Grades (35% Other Academic Indicator (Student Growth) and English Language Proficiency Progress / 30% Academic Achievement / 20% School Quality or Student Success / 15% Other academic indicator (Closing gaps)) and High Schools (30% Academic Achievement (Student Growth) and English Language Proficiency Progress / 30% Academic Achievement (English Language Arts, Math, Science and Social Studies) / 15% School quality or student success (Readiness) / 15% Graduation Rate / School quality or student success (Closing Gaps))

Georgia – Accountability

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.

Post
Weights assigned to each indicator in Florida - Elementary Schools (400 Other Academic Indicator / 200 Academic Achievement / 100 School Quality or Student Success), Middle Grades (400 Other Academic Indicator / 200 School Quality or Student Success / 200 Academic Achievement / 100 Middle School Acceleration) and High Schools (400 Academic Achievement (Student Growth) /  200 Academic Achievement (English Language Arts and Math) / 200 School Quality or Student Success / 100 Graduation Rate / 100 High School Acceleration)

Florida – Accountability

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.

Post
Weights assigned to each indicator in Delaware - Elementary and Middle Grades (40% Other Academic Indicator / 30% Academic Achievement / 20% School Quality or Student Success / 10% English Language Proficiency Progress) and High Schools (40% Academic Achievement / 35% School Quality or Student Success / 15% Graduation Rate / 10% English Language Proficiency Progress)

Delaware – Accountability

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.

Post
Weights assigned to each indicator in Arkansas - Elementary and Middle Grades (50% Other Academic Indicator and English Language Proficiency Progress / 35% Academic Achievement / 15% School Quality or Student Success) and High Schools (35% Academic Achievement (Student Growth) and English Language Proficiency Progress / 35% Academic Achievement (English Language Arts and Math) / 15% School Quality or Student Success / 15% Graduation Rate)

Arkansas – Accountability

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.

Post
Weights assigned to each indicator in Alabama - Elementary and Middle Grades (40% Academic Achievement / 40% Academic Indicator / 15% School Quality or Student Success / 5% English Language Proficiency Progress) and High Schools (30% Graduation Rate / 25% Academic Achievement Student Growth / 20% Academic Achievement English Language Arts and Math / 20% School Quality or Student Success / 5% English Language Proficiency Progress)

Alabama – Accountability

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. ESSA requires states to submit plans to the U.S. Department of Education (US ED) describing the state systems for evaluating school performance and holding schools accountable for improvement. States could submit their plans to the US ED by either April 3 or September 18, 2017. After receiving feedback on their plans from the US ED, states finalize their plans. State accountability systems take effect in school year 2017-18.